New Moon Day: To Drink, or Not to Drink: That is the Question

No other precept is the subject of such lengthy and tiring debate as the fifth. The Twitterverse, blogs, web-sites, periodicals, discussion groups, and the nether-regions of online Buddhist forums continually pulsate with it. To drink, or not to drink: that is the question.

But why, we are right to think, is this question even being asked? It isn’t because of any ambiguity in the Teachings; take one look at a decent translation of the Pāli Canon and you’ll see the Buddha unequivocally said ‘avoid intoxicants which are the basis of heedlessness’*. Nor is it because the precepts belong to a different time and culture; we are no less in need of moral guidance and sobriety than people were in the Buddha’s day – if anything, we are more in need.

So why? Because people would rather follow their defilements than the Path.

Now I know that there are people reading this who are partial to the odd tipple, including two in particular to whom I am very close. And I know that Buddhism means a great deal to them and that they try to follow it as best they can – cultivating concentration, mindfulness, truthfulness, non-attachment, loving-kindness, patience and so on. But I also know that they fully understand: what the fifth precept is; that they are not keeping it; that a Buddhist is one who does; and that it would be unskilful to claim that they are as long as they’re still drinking alcohol.

If you aren’t ready to give it up then this is the skilful approach: an honest admission that the precept is such and that you’re not keeping it… yet.

And then there are those who have made the commitment to abstain but who genuinely slip up. Having been trumped by temptation, however, they recognise their error and resolve to do better in the future. We are, after all, unenlightened beings in training, and so the occasional hiccup with one of the precepts is understandable.

The problem is that some people who purport to be Buddhists simply disregard the precept. They dredge up a slew of excuses as to why they shouldn’t keep it; reel off a million reasons why it’s all right to drink; or worse: claim the precept doesn’t mean abstention at all, and re-write it because it’s not the way they want it to be, calling theirs an ‘interpretation’ when it’s just a distortion in fancy dress. And to top it all off, some of them are intent on broadcasting their opinions to the world:

It’s all right to drink in moderation!

The precept doesn’t mean avoid it completely; it means don’t get drunk!

If I can still stand after a night out I’m not breaking it!

If I drink mindfully I’m OK!

It’s only the monks and nuns who are meant to be tee-total!

And, after all, the Buddha taught the Middle Way! The wise approach is to find that mindful balance between abstention and alcoholism!

Plus, times have changed! The precept was laid down over two thousand years…

Blah, blah, blah, blah.

See – Defilements. That’s what’s talking there. Plain and simple. Crafty, cunning, conniving defilements, sniffing and scratching and searching for a loop-hole in this precept.

What many people don’t realise is that it’s precisely these reactions, resistances, and desires to have things our own way that we as Buddhists are meant to observe and understand – not follow. If we honour the precepts we can do this; if we don’t, we can’t.

I’ll never forget the time when a certain man came here to talk about becoming a Buddhist prison chaplain. During these interviews the candidate is always asked what their take on the fifth precept is. As a chaplain, virtually every prisoner they’ll see will be locked up because of crimes relating to alcohol and drug abuse. It is thus essential that the chaplain himself abstains completely: what kind of moral example would he be setting if he was using the very same substances that had landed his charges behind bars?

So this man was asked the question and an impassioned reply followed. He related how he was from a certain country where drink is a vital thread in the fabric of the culture. And how at Christmas, when he’s sat around the family table, it would be unthinkable to refuse a glass of the sacred nectar. Can we imagine the suffering that would be wrought if he passed over the punch? Is it possible to comprehend the anguish that would arise if he glugged not the Guinness? So he couldn’t abstain. No: drinking alcohol at such a time, was, he assured us – and I quote – ‘the most skilful thing’ he could do.

Pull the other one.


* Suramerayamajjapamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami, “I undertake the training rule to abstain from fermented and distilled intoxicants which are the basis for heedlessness.”  (“Going for Refuge & Taking the Precepts”, by Bhikkhu Bodhi. Access to Insight, October 3, 2010, )


3 Replies to “New Moon Day: To Drink, or Not to Drink: That is the Question”

  1. The precepts are sometimes interpreted according to modern ideas, standards and customs. It reminded me of Ajann Mun’s response to Thai society and customs:

    “Ajaan Mun’s mode of practice was solitary and strict. He followed the Vinaya (monastic discipline) faithfully, and also observed many of what are known as the thirteen classic dhutanga (ascetic) practices, such as living off almsfood, wearing robes made of cast-off rags, dwelling in the forest, eating only one meal a day…

    He also had his detractors, who accused him of not following traditional Thai Buddhist customs. He usually responded by saying that he wasn’t interested in bending to the customs of any particular society — as they were, by definition, the customs of people with greed, anger, and delusion in their minds. He was more interested in finding and following the Dhamma’s home culture, or what he called the customs of the noble ones: the practices that had enabled the Buddha and his disciples to achieve Awakening in the first place. This phrase — the customs of the noble ones — comes from an incident in the Buddha’s life: not long after his Awakening, he returned to his home town in order to teach the Dhamma to the family he had left six years earlier. After spending the night in a forest, he went for alms in town at daybreak. His father the king learned of this and immediately went to upbraid him. “This is shameful,” the king said. “No one in the lineage of our family has ever gone begging. It’s against our family customs.”

    “Your majesty,” the Buddha replied, “I now belong, not to the lineage of my family, but to the lineage of the noble ones. Theirs are the customs I follow.”

    Extract from: The Customs of the Noble Ones by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

  2. Dear Ajahn,

    Thank you so much for this post. Well-written and very timely for the festive season. Sadhu anumodana.

    I see many alcohol related dis-eases, disasters & deaths everyday in hospital among people who drink a lot as well as occasionally. Mindfulness is hard to practise even in a sane & sober state. A single heedless moment is all it takes to various incidents that we later regret.

    I’d like to quote Ajaan Geoff Thanissaro’s words : If someone offered you a drink, one should say ‘sorry but my doctor says no.’; your doctor being Buddha.

    May all beings be free from booze-related suffering.

    Booooo to booze!

  3. The Buddha says that if you drink, you’ll likely go to hell as a result. If you’re lucky, you’ll be an animal or a hungry ghost. If you’re *very* lucky you’ll wind up as a mentally deranged human.

    Now, if you believe the Buddha, and you truly care about yourself, you have to ask yourself whenever you go to take a drink: Is it worth it? What’s the trade I’m making here? Is it a good deal?

    The allure of alcohol is the pleasure that comes from the taste, and from whatever pleasure that comes from the heedlessness it induces. Perhaps also the feeling of being part of a group, if you’re with others drinking – not feeling isolated/left out.

    These allures last, at most, as long as the evening spent drinking. Even then, these pleasures get duller with habitual use, and then you find that you’re all of a sudden part of a group of people who, actually, aren’t really very pleasant company. Yet somehow you feel tied to them. Then there are the hangovers; the memories of shameful things done and said; or worse, the *lack* of memory of these things, but the vivid assurances of others that, yes, you really *did* do them. Some, as Tan Ajaan mentions, go to jail in this life for some of these errors. Or they end up losing others’ respect and trust. And then there’s the damage it does to your bank balance. Some end up homeless and penniless as a result of alcoholism, yet still cruelly addicted to drinking, driving them to even lower depths.

    And yet these, the Buddha says, aren’t even the worst of drinking’s drawbacks. Long stints in the torturous lower realms potentially lie in wait for a drinker. At the very least: “The slightest of all the results coming from drinking fermented & distilled liquors is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to mental derangement.”

    Now, I’ve experienced temporary mental derangement as a human being quite recently. It isn’t fun. But I imagine it’s a walk in the park in comparison to hell, or being an animal or peta.

    So that’s the allure, and those are the drawbacks. Is it worth it? No. Even if you’re not totally convinced of the Buddha’s Awakening – Is it worth the risk? If he’s right, and you ignore his advice, you’re in trouble. If he’s wrong, and you follow his advice, you still benefit in this life, with a healthier bank balance, better friends, fewer hangovers and regrets, etc. You also earn the respect of good and wise people, rather than their censure. Following the Buddha’s advice is really a safe bet.

    And luckily, he not only details the allure and drawbacks, but also shows the way out: the escape. There’s joy that comes from acting skilfully, and a sense of healthy self-esteem: freedom from remorse. This in turn helps get the mind calm and concentrated, which provides an alternative and much better pleasure than alcohol ever can. It’s also incompatible, so you have to choose: a really good pleasure that has no drawbacks and leads to even *further* pleasure, heaven, and Nibbana; or alcohol, which leads to ruin, to pain and to hell, blocking the path to Nibbana?

    As I read recently on a Buddhist couple’s car sticker: “Choose Wisely.”

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